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Justifying Genocide

Germany and the Armenians from Bismarck to Hitler

Harvard University Press

“Yet another excellent book by Stefan Ihrig about the uncanny German–Turkish connection. The story of the Armenian Genocide and its reception in post–World War I Germany thus becomes a German, not a Turkish or Armenian, story about racism and the road taken by Germany toward the Holocaust. A surprising answer to the question: How was the Holocaust possible in twentieth-century Germany of all places?”

Moshe Zimmermann, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


“After Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination, Stefan Ihrig again presents an intelligent book of uncommon originality. By exposing how ‘justificationalism’ led to an ethic-free thinking in concepts of ‘final solutions,’ he shows how this became a strong mental link between the Armenian Genocide and the Shoah. Written in the elegant style of a historical drama in several acts, this is a great achievement.”

Rolf Hosfeld, Lepsiushaus Potsdam


“This book is a major contribution to the study of German attitudes toward the Armenian Genocide. It puts German policies and reactions to Ottoman Turkey in the general perspective of Germany’s policies before, during, and after World War I. It deals with the parallels between German attitudes to Armenians and to Jews, and permits us to understand the complexities and problems of different minority groups within German society relative to Turkey.”

Yehuda Bauer, Yad Vashem


“It is striking to see the ideological similarities between Germany in the late 1920s and Kemalist Turkey, or Mussolinian Italy. Written in a lively style, well-balanced and well-documented, this book will advance the debate on the relationship between mass violences that marked the twentieth century.”

Raymond Kévorkian, University of Paris VIII







Stefan Ihrig

Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination

Belknap Press/Harvard University Press

“From the Armenian massacres to the Turkish War of Independence and the rise of Kemal Atatürk, Turkish events attracted deep interest in Germany. As Ihrig shows, politically active Germans of the Weimar Republic, especially on the far right, saw in Turkey a model for successful revisionism, authoritarian rule, secular modernization and the political utility of genocide. This brilliant and original study sheds new light on the rise of Nazism and the pre-history of Nazi racial policy.”

Christopher Clark, University of Cambridge


“This is a most important and refreshingly original book about a hitherto unknown yet pivotal influence on Adolf Hitler and other National Socialists. Its eye-opening conclusions will change how we think about German and European history as well as the Holocaust.”

Thomas Weber, University of Aberdeen


“Fascinating… This is a gap-filling book that’ll be of deep interest to students of both World War II and National Socialism.”

Steve Donoghue, Open Letters Monthly








Stefan Ihrig

Wer sind die Moldawier?


"It is beyond any doubt that Ihrig’s book is an important study and a valuable source for all interested in the post-Soviet history of Moldova and the process of nation-building in general."

Aneta Mihaylova, Études balkaniques 1-2 (2010), 276-280


"In describing and unveiling the nation-building approach of the two main identity discourses, [Ihrig] has made an interesting and compelling study of this problem, making his work one of the most complete ones in describing the Moldavian identity problem. We can surely state that Stefan Ihrig’s book does not only serve as a tool in researching the aspects of identity crises and nation-building, but also in understanding the situation of post-Soviet republics nowadays."

Raluca Betea, Europolis 4 (2008), 377-380





Stefan Ihrig

with Christian Weiß and Roberta Carnevale

Europa am Bosporus (er-)finden?

Peter Lang

Die Debatte um den Beitritt der Türkei geht nicht nur um die Türkei selbst, sondern vor allem um den Charakter der EU. Wie man auf die Türkei antwortet, gibt klare Auskunft darüber, was Europa ist oder sein soll. Diese Analyse typologisiert und dokumentiert die verschiedenen Argumentationslinien der Diskussionsteilnehmer in Westeuropa. Der Begriffskampf um Europa, der sich im Thema Türkei zuspitzt, wird anhand von Tageszeitungen aus Deutschland, Frankreich, Großbritannien und Italien untersucht. Dabei wird offensichtlich, wie stark die nationale Perspektive bei der Diskussion europäischer Themen immer noch vorherrscht. So ist die kulturell-historische Begründung Europas eine deutsch-französische Besonderheit. Dies zeigt, wie unterschiedlich die Vorstellungen von (EU-)Europa sind.







edited volumes

The Armenian Genocide and the World


Van Leer Jerusalem Institute (forthcoming June 2016)


[special issue of the Journal of Levantine Studies


contributions: O. Steinberg: James Bryce and the Origins of the Armenian Question * M. Tusan: James Bryce’s Blue Book as Evidence * S. Ihrig: Lord Bryce and the Armenians in German Propaganda during World War I * P. P. Kránitz: The Armenian Genocide in Interwar Hungarian Political Discourse * M. Berli: The Zionist Leaders’ Fear * A. Kay: The Representation of the Psychological Ramifications of the Armenian Genocide * B. Der Matossian: Recent Trends in the Armenian Genocide Historiography * M. Mamedov: Reading Akram Aylisli’s Stone Dreams on the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide * N. Baysal: Living with the Curse of the Armenians (online preview publication)

K. Korostelina & S. Lässig

with S. Ihrig


History Education and Post-Conflict Reconciliation – Reconsidering Joint Textbook Projects


Routledge 2013


Stefan Ihrig

S. Ihrig, V. Dumbrava, D. Müller & I. Şarov


Istoria între ştiinţa şi şcoală

Perioada interbelica în Basarabia: Studii, materiale, surse şi sugestii


Editura Cartdidact 2008


[Schriftenreihe des Moldova Instituts Leipzig] 

Grenzen schulischer Geschichtsdarstellung/History Teaching and its (Dis)Contents


Hahnsche Buchhandlung 2006


[special issue of the Internationale Schulbuchforschung/International Textbook Research 2 (2006)]

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